Archive for September, 2010

Playing with EC2 Micro Instances


Last night I decided to give the t1.micro instance size a try on Amazon EC2. I used the Ubuntu 32-bit EBS AMI for the test.

--kernel aki-5037dd39 
--instance-type t1.micro 
--region us-east-1 
--key test1 
--user-data-file ~/svn/ec2/ 
--group default 
--instance-initiated-shutdown-behavior stop

The instance started as usual. Once it was up and configured (via Puppet), I was able to log in and start poking around.

During the course of my testing, I upgraded some packages to the latest versions (I ran sudo apt-get update ; sudo apt-get upgrade) and rebooted the instance. After the reboot, I was unable to log in. As I dug into the problem, I noticed the following on the console:

$ ec2-get-console-output i-87705bed | tail
[    0.850326] devtmpfs: mounted
[    0.850368] Freeing unused kernel memory: 216k freed
[    0.852042] Write protecting the kernel text: 4328k
[    0.852509] Write protecting the kernel read-only data: 1336k
init: console-setup main process (63) terminated with status 1
%Ginit: plymouth-splash main process (215) terminated with status 2
init: plymouth main process (45) killed by SEGV signal
cloud-init running: Thu, 16 Sep 2010 22:00:31 +0000. up 7.09 seconds
mountall: Disconnected from Plymouth

It appeared that there was a problem with the mounts. On another clean instance, I noticed that the /etc/fstab file had a reference to /mnt, which isn’t valid on t1.micro instances. All other instance types include ephemeral storage, but t1.micro instances do not.

Once I removed the conflicting line in /etc/fstab, the problem instance was able to boot normally.

For the curious, here’s my script:

apt-get update
apt-get --yes install puppet
wget --output-document=/etc/puppet/puppet.conf
perl -pi -e 's/START=no/START=yes/' /etc/default/puppet
/etc/init.d/puppet restart

After discovering this problem with micro instances, I added the following to the script:

if [ "`curl -s`" = "t1.micro" ] ; then
    sed -i -e '5d' /etc/fstab

This deletes the line in /etc/fstab that mounts the ephemeral storage.

SSH Agent in GNU Screen


When starting a GNU Screen session, the current SSH agent is passed through to the new virtual terminal.  As long as you do not disconnect from the screen session, SSH agent forwarding should continue to work as normal.

Once you disconnect from the screen session and end the SSH connection, the SSH agent settings in the screen session are no longer valid.  If you reconnect to the screen session using a new SSH connection, the SSH agent socket has changed.

To fix this problem, I added the following bit of code to my ~/.bashrc file:

if ! [ -S $SSH_AUTH_SOCK ] ; then
    # delete old/lingering agent files
    for i in `find /tmp/ssh-* -maxdepth 2 -name agent* -user $USER 2>/dev/null` ; do
        if ! [ -S $i ] ; then
            rm $i
    unset i
    # set agent string
    SSH_AUTH_SOCK="`find /tmp/ssh-* -maxdepth 2 -name agent* -user $USER 2>/dev/null  | head -n1`"
    echo "Set SSH_AUTH_SOCK to $SSH_AUTH_SOCK"

This code does the following:

  1. Checks if the current $SSH_AUTH_SOCK environment variable is a valid socket
  2. If not, delete all old SSH agent socket files that may be lingering
  3. Set the $SSH_AUTH_SOCK environment variable to the first valid SSH agent socket file found

I normally open new virtual terminals to do work and close them when I’m complete.  That way I always have a current environment for the applications to use.  If you’re someone that uses only one virtual terminal and leaves it running forever, this trick won’t work as well for you.

If you connect to a server using multiple SSH connections, there’s a chance that a new virtual terminal in the screen session could use the SSH agent socket from a different SSH connection.  If you disconnect the other SSH session, you may loose access to the SSH agent and need to open a new virtual terminal (or run source ~/.bashrc) to regain access to an SSH agent.

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