ec2-run-instances ami-1234de7b --kernel aki-5037dd39 --instance-type t1.micro --region us-east-1 --key test1 --user-data-file ~/svn/ec2/init-instance.sh --group default --instance-initiated-shutdown-behavior stop
The instance started as usual. Once it was up and configured (via Puppet), I was able to log in and start poking around.
During the course of my testing, I upgraded some packages to the latest versions (I ran
sudo apt-get update ; sudo apt-get upgrade) and rebooted the instance. After the reboot, I was unable to log in. As I dug into the problem, I noticed the following on the console:
$ ec2-get-console-output i-87705bed | tail [ 0.850326] devtmpfs: mounted [ 0.850368] Freeing unused kernel memory: 216k freed [ 0.852042] Write protecting the kernel text: 4328k [ 0.852509] Write protecting the kernel read-only data: 1336k init: console-setup main process (63) terminated with status 1 %Ginit: plymouth-splash main process (215) terminated with status 2 init: plymouth main process (45) killed by SEGV signal cloud-init running: Thu, 16 Sep 2010 22:00:31 +0000. up 7.09 seconds mountall: Disconnected from Plymouth
It appeared that there was a problem with the mounts. On another clean instance, I noticed that the
/etc/fstab file had a reference to
/mnt, which isn’t valid on t1.micro instances. All other instance types include ephemeral storage, but t1.micro instances do not.
Once I removed the conflicting line in
/etc/fstab, the problem instance was able to boot normally.
For the curious, here’s my
#!/bin/sh apt-get update apt-get --yes install puppet wget --output-document=/etc/puppet/puppet.conf http://example.com/puppet.conf perl -pi -e 's/START=no/START=yes/' /etc/default/puppet /etc/init.d/puppet restart
After discovering this problem with micro instances, I added the following to the
if [ "`curl -s http://169.254.169.254/latest/meta-data/instance-type`" = "t1.micro" ] ; then sed -i -e '5d' /etc/fstab fi
This deletes the line in
/etc/fstab that mounts the ephemeral storage.
When starting a GNU Screen session, the current SSH agent is passed through to the new virtual terminal. As long as you do not disconnect from the screen session, SSH agent forwarding should continue to work as normal.
Once you disconnect from the screen session and end the SSH connection, the SSH agent settings in the screen session are no longer valid. If you reconnect to the screen session using a new SSH connection, the SSH agent socket has changed.
To fix this problem, I added the following bit of code to my
if ! [ -S $SSH_AUTH_SOCK ] ; then # delete old/lingering agent files for i in `find /tmp/ssh-* -maxdepth 2 -name agent* -user $USER 2>/dev/null` ; do if ! [ -S $i ] ; then rm $i fi done unset i # set agent string SSH_AUTH_SOCK="`find /tmp/ssh-* -maxdepth 2 -name agent* -user $USER 2>/dev/null | head -n1`" echo "Set SSH_AUTH_SOCK to $SSH_AUTH_SOCK" fi
This code does the following:
- Checks if the current
$SSH_AUTH_SOCKenvironment variable is a valid socket
- If not, delete all old SSH agent socket files that may be lingering
- Set the
$SSH_AUTH_SOCKenvironment variable to the first valid SSH agent socket file found
I normally open new virtual terminals to do work and close them when I’m complete. That way I always have a current environment for the applications to use. If you’re someone that uses only one virtual terminal and leaves it running forever, this trick won’t work as well for you.
If you connect to a server using multiple SSH connections, there’s a chance that a new virtual terminal in the screen session could use the SSH agent socket from a different SSH connection. If you disconnect the other SSH session, you may loose access to the SSH agent and need to open a new virtual terminal (or run
source ~/.bashrc) to regain access to an SSH agent.